Minggu, 19 Februari 2012

BAHAN AJAR BAHASA INGGRIS


BAHAN AJAR BAHASA INGGRIS
KLIK DISINI UNTUK MENCARI LEBIH BANYAK, KLIK : www.yayasangurungajiindonesia.com 

Kata Kerja dijadikan Kata Benda (Gerund)

Kecuali dengan bentuk GERUND (infinitive + ing) yang mengandung arti hal perbuatan/cara perbuatan itu dilakukan, misalnya : swimming is good for our health, collecting stamps is my hobby, reading French is difficult, parking here is forbidden dsb. – kata kerja yang dijadikan kata benda bisa dibuat dengan memberi berbagai akhiran selain “ing”.
a. Infinitive + TION
to inform – information artinya: penerangan
to reform – reformation : pembaharuan
to solve – solution larutan, pemecahan
to repeat – repetition ulangan
to produce – production hasil/produksi
to attend – attention perhatian
to pronounce – pronunciation pengucapan suara
to administer – administration pengelolaan
to educate – education pendidikan
to elect – election pemilihan
to invite – invitation undangan
to intend – intention niat
to invent – invention penemuan (baru)
to demonstrate – demonstration demonstrasi
to alter – alteration pengubahan (ganti)
to altercate – altercation pertengkaran
to fabricate – fabrication pembuatan
to act – action perbuatan
to appreciate – appreciation penghargaan
to assume – assumption sangkaan/dugaan
to corrupt – corruption (korupsi)
to classify – classification (jenis/klasifikasi)
to circulate – circulation (peredaran)
to combine – combination (gabungan/kombinasi)
to mwounicate – communication (perhubungan)
to confirm – confirmation (penetapan/pengesahan)
to decorate – decoration (dekorasi ruangan)
to declare – declaration (pernyataan)
to devote – devotion (ketaman/kepamhan)
to expose – exposition (pertunjuka/pameran)
to except – exception (bantahan/kekecualian
to frustrate – frustration (kekecewaan dan bingung;frustasi)
to hesitate – hesitation (kebimbangan)
to inject – injection (suntikan)
to interrupt – interruption (pemulusan/penentangan)
to interpret – interpretation (penafsiran)
to intervere – intervention (campur tangan)
to narrate – narration (penceramah)
to observe – observation (pengamatan)
to operate – operation (pembedahan ;kedokteran ;gerakan ;militer                   pengerjaan)
to present -presentation (presentasi)
to register – registration (pendaftaran)
to relate – relation (perhubungan)
to restore – restoration (perbaikan/pemugaran)
to satisfy – satisfaction (kepuasan)
to translate – translation (penerjemahan)
b. Berakhiran SION
to permit – permission (izin)
to omit – omission (penghilangan/penanggalan)
to secede – secession (pemisahan)
to succeed – succession (pewarisan)
to apprehend – apprehension (pemahamam, keprihatinan,pengertian,                      kecemasan)
to decide – decision (keputusan)
to discuss – discussion (perundingan)
to suspect – suspicion (kesangsian, kecurigaan)
to explode – explosion (ledakan, letusan)
c. Berakiran URE
to please – pleasure (kesenangan)
to press – pressure (tekanan)
to depart – departure (keberangkatan)
to sign – signature (tandatangan)
to seize – seizure (perampasan)
d. Berakhiran AL
to arrive – arrival (kedatangan)
to try – trial (percobaan)
to approve – approval (pernyataan setuju)
to remove – removal (perpindahan)
to rehearse – rehearsal (pengulangan)
to acquit – acquittal (pelunasan/kelepasan)
to dispose – disposal (pengaturan/kecondongan)
to edit – editorial (tajuk rencana)
to continue – continual (kesinambungan)
e. Berakhiran MENT
to govern – government (pemerintahan)
to equip – equipment (perlengkapan)
to agree – agreement (persetujuan)
to improve – improvement (perbaikan)
to enlarge – enlargement (perluasan)
to pay – payment (pembayaran)
to invest – investment (penanaman modal)
to punish – punishment (hukuman)
to arrange – arrangement (tatanan, susunan)
to settle – settlement (penyelesaian, perkampungan)
to entertain – entertainment (hiburan)
to manage – management (pengelolaan)
to develop – development (perkembangan)
f. Berakhiran CB/ANCE
to perform – performance (pertunjukan)
to resist – resistance (perlawanan)
to assist – assistance (bantuan)
to appear – appearance (kemunculan, penampilan)
to enter – entrance (jalanmasuk)
to guide – guidance (tuntunan, panduan)
to serve – service (pelayanan)
to accord – accordance (persesuaian/persetujuan)
to maintain – maintenance (pemeliharaan)
to defend – defense (pertahanan)
g. Berakhlran ESS
to succeed – success (keberhasilan)
to proceed – process (perkembangan/kemajuan)
to exceed – excess (kelebihan)
h. Berakhiran TH
to grow – growth (perturnbuhan)
to die – death (kematian)
to deepen (memperdalam) – depth (kedalaman)
t. Ada pula kata-kata yang diberi bentuk tersendiri dan berubah suara/bunyi
to see – sight (penglihatan)
to fly – flight (penerbangan)
to receive – receipt (tanda penerimaan)
to draw – drawing (gambar)
to drink – draught (tegukan/minum (obat))
to give – gift (pemberian)
to speak – speech (pidato)
to loose – loss (kehilangan/rugi)
to choose – choice (pilihan)
to live – life (kehidupan)
to conquer – conquest (penaklukan)
to pray – prayer (persembahan/doa)
to sing – song (nyanyian)
to know – knowledge (pengetahuan)
J. Ada pula kata-kata kerja yang tidak berubah sama sekali bentuknya
to walk – walk (perjalanan/jalannya)
to ride – ride (pengendaraan)
to dance – dance (tarian)
to play – play (permainan)
to visit – visit (kunjungan)
to escape – escape (kelepasan/kelolosan)
to laugh – laugh (tertawa)
smile – smile (senyuman)
to sleep – sleep (tidurnya)
to plant – plant (tanaman)
to change – change (perubahan)
to look – look (pandangan)
to show – show (pertunjukkan)
to drink – drink (minuman)
to love – love (cinta)
to aid – aid (bantuan)
to help – help (pertolongan)
Kata Benda dijadikan Kata Sifat
a. Dengan pemberian akhiran Y
anger – angry (marah)
wealth – wealthy (makmur)
health – healthy (sehat)
fun – funny (lucu/menggelikan)
hair – hairy (berambut)
rain – rainy (berhujan)
wind – windy (berangin)
cloud – cloudy (berawan)
fog – foggy (berkabut)
noise – noisy (ribut/berisik)
sorrow – sorry (menyesal/sedih/sayang)
dust – dusty (kotor/berdebu)
b. Akhiran OUS
danger – dangerous (berbahaya)
victory – victorious (gemilang)
glory – glorious (megah)
mystery – mysterious (penuh rahasia)
delight – delicious (nyaman/nikmat/lezat)
c. Akhiran FUL
wonder – wonderful (ajaib)
use – useful (berguna)
delight – delightful (nyaman)
care – careful (hati-hati)
wish – wishful (berkeinginan)
dread – dreadful (mengerikan)
peace – peaceful (penuh kedamaian)
power – powerful (penuh kekuatan)
doubt – doubtful (ragu sekali)
success – successful (sangat berhasil)
respect – respectful (hormat)
d. Akhiran AL
history – historical (bersejarah)
condition – conditional (bersyarat)
science – scientifical (ilmiah)
spirit – spiritual (rohaniah)
education – educational (mengenai pendidikan)
centrum – central (pusat)
origin – original (asli)
person – personal (bersifat pribadi)

PERUBAHAN MAKNA DAN BENTUK KATA
DALAM BAHASA INGGRIS
Compiled by: Jasmansyah
Kata Sifat dijadikan Kata Benda
a. Dengan pemberian akhiran CE
patient – patience (kesabaran)
important – importance (pentingnya)
present – presence (kehadiran)
absent – absence (ketidakhadiran)
different – difference (perbedaan)
distant – distance (jarak)
b. Akhiran NESS
sad – sadness (kesedihan)
glad – gladness (kegembiraan)
happy – happiness (kebahagiaan)
kind – kindness (keramahan/kebaikan)
dark – darkness (kegelapan)
bright – brightness (kecemerlangan)
c. Akhiran ITY 
noble – nobility (keagungan budi)
able – ability (kemampuan)
capable – capability (kecakapan)
pure – purity (keaslian/kemurnian/kesucian)
popular – popularity (ketenaran)
original – originality (keaslian)
d. Ada yang mempunyai bentuk khusus
high – height (tinggi/tingginya)
wide – width (lebar/luas/lebarnya/luasnya)
long – length (panjang/panjangnya)
deep – depth (dalam/dalamnya)
strong – strength (kekuatan)
new – novelty (kebaharuan)
true – truth (kebenaran)
rich – riches (kekayaan)
proud – pride (kebanggaan)
Kata Kerja dijadikan Kata Sifat
a. Dengan pemberian akhiran BLE
to bear – bearable (dapat ditahan)
to obtain – obtainable (bisa diperoleh)
to apply – applicable (dapat digunakan)
to break – breakable (mudah pecah)
to manage – manageable (dapat dikelola/dikendalikan)
to extend – extensible (dapat diperluas)
to find – findable (dapat diketemukan)
to separate – separable (dapat dipisahkan)
to penetrate – penetrable (dapat ditembus/dimasuki)
to agree – agreeable (dapat disetujui)
to accept – acceptable (dapat diterima)
b. Ada yang mempunyai bentuk sendiri 
to hear – audible (dapat didengar)
to read – legible (dapat dibaca)
to eat – edible (dapat dimakan)
to see – visible (dapat dilihat)
to burn – inflammable (mudah terbakar)
to touch – palpable/tangible (dapatdiraba/disentuh)
to carry – portable (dapat diangkut/dicangking)
to bend – flexible (dapat dilengkungkan)
to feel – sensible (dapat dirasakan)
c. Perhatikan arti kata-kata di bawah ini 
inalienable – tidak dapat dicabut haknya
irreplaceable – tidak dapat digantikan
indispensable – tidak dapat ditinggalkan
innumerable – tidak terhingga banyaknya
irresponsible – tidak dapat dipertanggungjawabkan
inviolable – tidak boleh diganggu gugat
irrevocable – tidak boleh tidak (harus)
irresistible – tidak dapat menahan godaan,karena sangat menarik
incredible – tidak dapat dipercaya/mustahil/tak masuk akal
The Active and Pasive Voice
Tenses terbagi menjadi present, past, dan future.
berikut ini iktisar dari bagan – bagannya dengan bentuk Active dan Passive Voice
PRESENT
Present
 Simple
Active
Passive
S + V1 + O + Complement
S penderita + is/am/are + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement
Present Continuous
Active
Passive
S + is/am/are + V-ing + O + Complement
S penderita + is/am/are + being + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement
Present Perfect
Active
Passive
S + have/has + V3 + O + Complement
S penderita +have/has +been + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement
Present Perfect Continuous
Active
Passive
S + have/has + been+ V -ing + O + Complement
NO PASSIVE FORM
PAST
Past
 Simple
Active
Passive
S + V2 + O + Complement
S penderita +was/were +V3 + by O pelaku +Complement
Past Continuous
Active
Passive
S +was/were + V-ing + O + complement
S penderita +was/were + being + V3 + by O pelaku +Complement
Past Perfect
Active
Passive
S + had + V3 + O + Complement
S penderita + had + been + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement
Past Perfect continuous
Active
Passive
S + had + been + V-ing + O + Complement
NO PASSIVE FORM
FUTURE
Future
 Simple
Active
Passive
S + will/shall/be going to + inf. + O + Complement
S penderita +will/shall/be going to + be + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement
Future Continuous
Active
Passive
S + will/shall + be + V-ing + O + Complement
NO PASSIVE FORM
Future Perfect
Active
Passive
S + will/shall + have + V3 + O + Complement
S penderita + have/has + been + V3 + by O pelaku + Complement
Future Perfect Continuous
Active
Passive
S + will/shall + have + been + V-ing + O + Complement
NO PASSIVE FORM
Catatan :
Complement adalah keterangan pelengkap yang perlu dicantumkan, misal : keterangan tempat dan keterangan waktu.
Auxiliary and Modals
PRESENT
PAST
Ability
Can
I can speak German
Could
I could speak German when I was a child
Permission
May, Can, Might
May I go playing football ?
Could, Might
Could I go playing football?
Possibility
May, Can, Might
John hasn’t come yet. He may work.
May, Have, Might Have
John hadn’t come yet when we got home.He might have worked overtime
Advise
Should, Ought to, Had better.
You should study hard.
Should have, Ought to have.
you should have studied hard.
Necessity
Must, Have to.
We must eat our breakfast.
Had to
We had to eat our breakfast this morning.
Probability
Must
He is absent today.
He must be sick.
Must have
He was absent yesterday.
He must have been sick.
Catatan :
1.     Probability adalah strong possibility.
2.     Larangan (Prohibition) dinyatakan dengan menggunakan MUST NOT. Contoh :
You must not go out tonight (kamu dilarang pergi).
You don’t have to go out tonight (kamu tidak perlu pergi).
3.     SHOULD HAVE dan COULD HAVE menyatakan penyesalan terhadap suatu aktivitas yang pada kenyataannya tidak dilakukan.
4.     WOULD juga digunakan untuk menyatakan kebiasaan masa lalu (bermakna USED TO).
contoh :
o    My Grandfather would tell bedtime story when I was a child.
o    My Grandfather used to tell bedtime story when I was a child.
Elliptical Construction
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
SO + AUXILIARY + SUBJECT
NEITHER + AUXILIARY + SUBJECT
SUBJECT + AUXILIARY + TOO
SUBJECT + AUXILIARY(NOT) + EITHER
you are a student.
I am a student.
you are a student,
and so am I.
And I am too.
you are not a doctor.
I am not a doctor.
you are not a doctor,
and nether am I.
And I am not either.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
(If Clause)
1. PRESENT REAL
IF CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
FACT
if+Simple Present
If I graduate in march
S+Modal1(will)+inf.+O
I will take master degree in July.
it is possible to happen.
I may graduate in March so I may take master degree in July.
2. PRESENT UNREAL
IF CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
FACT
if+Simple Past
If I graduated in March.
S+Modal2(wouldl)+inf.+O
I would take master degree in July.
Simple Present
I don’t graduate in March so I can’t take master degree in July.
3. PAST UNREAL
IF CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
FACT
if+ Past Perfect
If I had graduated in March.
S+Modal2(would)+have+V3+O
I would have taken master degree in July.
Simple Past
I couldn’t take master degree in July because I didn’t graduate in March.
Catatan:
1.     Pernyataan dalam SUBJUNCTIVE dan CONDITIONAL SENTENCES selahu bertentangan dengan fakta.
2.     Perubahan-perubahan TENSES yang terjadi dalam SUBJUNCTIVE juga berlaku dalam CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
3.     IF dalam IF CLAUSE dapat dihilangkan jika terdapat kata bantu SHOULD, WERE, dan HAD dalam IF CLAUSE.
ex:
 If I had been rich – Had I been rich
GERUND
adalah kata benda yang dibentuk dari V-Ing, dan di dalam kalimat digunakan
Sebagai:
Subjek
WALKING is healthy
Objek
I hate SMOKING.
Objek dari sebuah preposisi
He is in charge OF ORGANIZING the meeting.

Dengan BY untuk menerangkan bagaimana sesuatu hal dilakukan.
I found out what QUENCH means BYLOOKING up the dictionary.

Sesudah kata kerja
berikut ini
admit, delay, mention, suggest, look forward to.
appreciate, deny, mind, tolerate, avoid, discuss, postpone, understand, can’t stand, enjoy, practice, hate, can’t help, finish, quit, be used to, complete, keep, regret, be accustomed to.
consider, like, risk, object to.
SPEECH
SPEECH terbagi dalam dua bentuk DIRECT dan INDIRECT
1. Direct Speech 
menyatakan isi pembicaraan seseorang dengan mengutip kata-katanya sebagaimana yang diucapkan
Jika:
Statement
John said, “I will go to Bali Tonight.
Yes / No Question
She asked, “Do you know the speaker’s name?”
WH – Question
The teacher asked Jane, “Why did you make many mistakes?”
Imperative
She said to the boys, “Sit down!”
(negative)
She told me. “Don’t speak!”
Present
Past Simple
Past Perfect
2. Indirect Speech
menyatakan isi pembicaraan seseorang
 tanpa mengutip kata-katanya sbagaiman adanya.
Maka :
THAT + statement
John said (that) he would go to Bali that night.
WHETHER/ IF + Statement
She asked me whether/if I knew the speaker’s name.
WH -Statement
The teacher asked Jane why she had made many mistakes.
TO INFINITIVE
She told the boys To Sit down.
NOT to infinitive
She told me Not To Speak .
Past
Past Perfect
Past Perfect
CATATAN
·         Would, should, had better, might, used to dan could di dalam Indirect Speechtidak mengalami perubahan.
·         Kata penghubung That boleh dihilangkan dalam Indirect Speech.
CAUSATIVE
Pola ini digunakan untuk menyuruh seseorang melakukan sesuatu.
Contoh Causative:
ACTIVE CAUSATIVE
1.     S + Let/make/have + O pelaku + Infinitive + O penderita
ex: john had the mechanic repair his car.
2.     S + Get + O pelaku + To Infinitive + O penderita
ex: john got the mechanic to repair his car.
PASSIVE CAUSATIVE
·         S + Make/have/get + O penderita + Verb3
ex: john made his car repaired.
PREFERENCE
1.     Untuk menyatakan kelebihsukaan terhadap suatu benda atau kegiatan digunakan struktur sebagai berikut:
1.     S  +  Like    + Noun*/ Gerund* + Better Than + Noun**/Gerund**
Jane  likes            apple                  better than       grape.
2.     S +   Prefer + Noun*/ Gerund*  + To         + Noun** / Gerund**
Jane prefers    eating apple        to                  eating grape
3.     S +   Prefer + To infinitive + (Rather) Than+Infinitive/Gerund/Noun
Jane prefers   to eat apple     rather than     eat grape
4.     S+Would prefer+To infinitive+(Rather)Than+ Infinitive/Gerund/Noun
Jane would prefer to eat apple       than          eating grape
5.     S + Would Rather + Infinitive + THAN + Infinitive / Gerund / Noun
Jane would rather eat apple   than                    grape
B. Untuk meminta seseorang melakukan suatu kegiatan secara halus (implied causative) digunakan struktur sebagai berikut:
1.     S + Prefer    + Someone (Subject) + To infinitive
I     prefers                 he                     to go to bed
2.     S + Would Rather + Someone (Subject) + Verb**
I     would rather                 he                went to bed
Adjective Clause
Clause ini digunakan untuk memberi keterangan, identitas, dan informasi lain kepada katabenda (Antecedent). Dalam struktur Adjective Clause ditandai dengan Relative Pronoun, yaitu: who, whom, whose, which, when, where, why, dan that.
Who
digunakan untuk orang dalam posisi subjek (human as subject).
Whom
digunakan untuk orang dalam posisi objek (human as object).
Which
digunakan untuk benda, baik dalam posisi subjek atau objek (non-human as subject/object).
That
digunakan sebagai subtitusi who, whom, atau which.
Whose
digunakan untuk kepemilikan.
When
digunakan untuk waktu.
Why
digunakan untuk sebab.
Contoh :
My English teacher is the man
 who Is standing near the pillar.
The house
 where I live is being renovated.
Adjective clause dibagi menjadi dua macam, yaitu:
1. Important (defining) adjective clause, yaitu adjective clause yang merupakan informasi penting bagi antecedent.

2. Unimportant (undefining) adjective clause, yaitu adjective clause yang merupakan informasi yang tidak penting bagi antecedent .
Contoh :
Important
Bob’s brother
 that (who) lives in New York is an actor.
Meaning
Bob has more than one brother.
Unimportant
Bob’s brother,
 who lives in New York is an actor.
Meaning
Bob has only one brother.
Catatan :
Dalam important adjective clause,
 relative pronoun, seperti: who, whom, which dapat digantikan dengan that; sedangkan dalam unimportant adjective clause tidak.
Adverb Clause
Clause ini digunakan untak memberi keterangan tambahan kepada Main Clause. Dalam struktur Adverb Clause ditandai dengan kata penghubung yang sesuai dengan keterangan yang diberikan,antara lain:
1.     Time : after, as, as long as, as soon as, before, since, until, when, whenever, while.
2.     Place : where, wherever.
3.     Reason : because, since.
4.     Purpose : so that, in order that.
5.     Manner : as if, as though.
6.     Condition : if, in case, provided that, unless, otherwise.
7.     Result : so.. that, such . . . that, therefore, thus, consequently.
8.     Contrast : although, though, even though, however, but, in spite of, despite.
Contoh :
He is such a good teacher that I will never forget him.
You will not make a success unless you work hard.
Noun Clause
Noun Clause berfungsi sama dengan single-word noun dalam kalimat sebagai subjek atau objek.
Contoh:
1. Noun Clause as Subject
Single-Word Noun                              Noun Clause
His
 house is big.                      Where he lives is big.
Her
 story was very interesting. What she told us teas very interesting.
2. Noun Clause as Object
Single-Word Noun                             Noun Clause
I don’t know
 him.                   I don’t know who he is.
She is reading my letter. She is reading what I have written.
Klausa ini dapat berasal dari
 statement, yes/no question, dan information question .
1. Statement
Contoh :
The world is round.
® Everyone knows that the world is round.
2. Yes/No Question
Contoh :
Is he feeling fine ?
® I don’t whether/if he is feeling fine.
3. Information Question
Contoh :
Who are you talking to ?
® Who I am talking to is not your business.
Catatan :
Adjective Clause dam Adverb Clause dapat direduksi menjadi phrase dengan menghilangkan beberapa bagian clause. Adverb Clause dapat direduksi jika subjek dalam Adverb Clause dan Main Clause sama.
a. Adjective Clause
1.     Hilangkam Relative Pronoun dan to be dalam Adjective Clause.
Clause ® The child who is bitten by a dog is crying.
Phrase ® The child bitten by a dog is crying.
2.     Jika tidak ada to be dalam Adjective Clause, maka verb diubah menjadi verb-ing.
Clause
® Anyone who has library card may check out books.
Phrase ® Anyone having library card may check out books.
b. Adverb Clause
1.     Hilangkan subjek dan to be dalam Adverb Clause.
Clause ® I was very sad while I was packing my suitcase.
Phrase ® I was very sad while         packing my suitcase.
2.     Jika tidak ada to be dalam Adverb Clause, maka verb diubah menjadi verb-ing.
Clause
® Before I left the class, I asked about the exam.
Phrase
® Before leaving the class, I asked about the exam.
3.     Khusus untuk so that dan if clause diubah menjadi to infinitive phrase .
Clause
® I moved to the place by them so that I could surf everyday.
Phrase
® I moved to the place by the sea to surf everyday.
Clause ® We can stop at that place if we want to take a rest. Phrase ® We can stop at that place to take a rest.

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